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INTRODUCTION

According to research, students who use computers should take short breaks and receive education and training in an ergonomically friendly environment. Computers are recognized as effective tools for improving health care systems and helping to improve the learning outcomes of health care professionals worldwide. Technology, communication, and information are utilized to enhance health systems, but they may also have an influence on health (1). Worldwide, musculoskeletal diseases are the most prevalent health issues. Musculoskeletal diseases associated with computers continue to be a significant public health concern. Millions of computer users worldwide are impacted by these infections (2). Muscles, tendons, ligaments, joints, peripheral nerves, and supporting nerves are all affected by inflammatory and degenerative diseases that cause pain and suffering (3). These ailments are referred to as musculoskeletal disorders. Cost-effectiveness data point to a substantial risk of musculoskeletal problems associated with the keyboard for computer users. (4) Nowadays, students use computers and smartphones every day. A survey shows that professionals spend less time using computers every day than students. Additionally, complaints about computer use are more common among college students than among professionals (5). The regions impacted by musculoskeletal issues were the neck (44%), back (30.5%), wrist/hand (), and shoulder. The most often reported musculoskeletal symptoms were pain (55%) and stiffness (14.8%). (initial). 12.5%)(6).

In general, and among IT professionals in particular, neck discomfort is a prevalent health issue. Greatest publics will at some point in their life have some level of neck discomfort (7). General aches and pains may be the result of bad posture in the arms, shoulders, and neck, or they may be the result of chronic aching in the easy materials around the shoulders and neck. A perfectly united neckline will have a little curvature to it. The natural curve of the neck is disrupted by prolonged computer usage, round shoulders, and bad neck posture, which causes muscular imbalance and neck discomfort as a result (8).It is thought that the main causes of neck discomfort are low-intensity, chronic stress and tension, together with bad posture (9). Other factors that are linked to neck discomfort at work include the distance of period consumed using a processer, how often breaks are taken, how the keyboard is used, where the computer screen is located, and the kind and usage of input devices. Errors in the workstation that might cause neck strain include reaching for the mouse, having the screen too low, and bending forward to use the computer. (10).

OBJECTIVES

Primary objective:

To determine how often neck discomfort is among computer science department students

Secondary objective:

To regulate the commonness of neck discomfort in boys and girls

To ascertain the connection among NDI and working hours

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

1. Dr. S A Shah (6) Conducted a training on the pervasiveness of neckline discomfort amongst computer users in 2015 and concluded that among office workers who work with video screens, the incidence of neck pain was not Self-reported specificity was 47%. Neck pain has also been found to be associated with work-related and personal variables.

2. Aysha siddiqua kalim Khan et al (11) In 2016, a research was conducted on computer users and the findings indicated that 28% of the participants had neck discomfort. About 40% of computer users report having neck posture-related problems such paresthesia and upper limb discomfort. The frequency is greater in women (60%) and it is determined that neck discomfort is directly correlated with the quantity of period consumed using a computer over the course of a year, the number of hours worked each day, and the age of the user. The risk of neck pain is increased by using computers and putting in long hours at work every day..

3. Faiza Sabeen et al (8) 2013 saw the completion of a study on the occurrence of turtleneck discomfort in computer users. Of the 50 participants, 72% reported having neck pain. Long-term computer use has been proven to be strongly associated with neck discomfort. Take-home workers get less neck ache. There was no discernible correlation between neck discomfort and the type of chair utilized. Additionally, there was no discernible correlation between the kind of system and neck discomfort. They came to the conclusion that neck discomfort at work is correlated with the quantity of while consumed using the computer and the frequency of breaks. Those who spend more than five hours a day on computers have been known to have severe neck discomfort.

4. Dr. Mohammed Younus Mustafa (12) A study of occupational roll neck pain and associated factors among computer-using registered nurses showed that sociodemographic, routine, ergonomic factors, and several psychological variables were associated with neck pain, and it was concluded that these patterns of association suggested. There is also an opportunity for intervention strategies to stimulate ergonomic work environments, increase exercise awareness, and enhance positive psychological work environments.

5. Ankita Bansal et al (13) looked into a cross-sectional research to find out how common IT-related health issues are among Surat city's information technology students at various colleges. Furthermore, the study's findings demonstrate that students frequently experience symptoms including watery judgments, appreciation strain, back, shoulder, neck, and other issues, and that these symptoms have gotten more chronic as students' workloads have increased. The study also discusses gender inequalities and comes to the conclusion that, in order to have an ergonomically appropriate atmosphere, IT students need to be educated about health hazards and have access to training and education.

6. R Adedoyin et al (1) conducted a cross-sectional study to find out how common information technology- related health issues are at Surat City's colleges. The results of the survey also show that symptoms such as watery judgments, judgement strain, back, shoulder, neck, and other problems are mutual between pupils, and that these symptoms have become more persistent as workloads have grown. The study addresses gender disparities as well and concludes that IT students must have access to training and education as well as health risks awareness in order to create an environment that is ergonomically suitable.

7. Ayoub Ghanbary Sartang et al (14) carried out studies in 2015 to measure the pervasiveness of musculoskeletal problems in campus users at Isfahan. The results show that ergonomic interventions can help lower the occurrence of musculoskeletal ailments among computer operators. These interventions include redesigning computer workstations, educating users about ergonomic principles, reducing working hours, developing a cycle of rest and work, using holders’ paper to reduce muscle and visual fatigue, and maintaining posture that keeps elbows near to the frame at an viewpoint of 90 to 120 gradations.

8. S Arun Vijay et al (6) An investigation on musculoskeletal health issues among IT workers at work was carried out in 2013. The results show that in the preceding year, 59% of the professionals had dealt with a musculoskeletal disorder connected to their line of work. With 30% of all reports, neck discomfort was the most frequently mentioned symptom. With yearly prevalences of 25%, 14%, and 13%, respectively, low back discomfort, wrist and needle agony, and shoulder cooperative pain were other regularly described complaints. The study found that in command to enable professionals to work restfully, an appropriate preventative plan had to be put in place..

9. Varun Singh et al (12) conducted a study in 2015 on upper limb musculoskeletal illnesses associated with computer use among healthcare workers. The results showed that 45% of the sample group had upper limb disorders, with 35.69% of all issues being related to the neck. Conclusion: Health care professionals frequently experience upper limb musculoskeletal disorders as a result of heavy computer use; appropriate steps should be taken to raise awareness of and treat these disorders in order to improve the healthcare system and improve patient care. 17.44% of the sample group had disorders related to the shoulder joint, 19.62% to the arm and forearm, 16.08% to the wrist, and 11.17% to the hands..

10. Mohsen Soroush MD et al (16) A study on the ergonomic dangers associated with computer use for office workers and the musculoskeletal problems associated with it was carried out in 2015. According to the study's findings, males most frequently reported musculoskeletal symptoms pertaining to their necks (58.53%) and lower backs (58.53%), whereas women most frequently reported complaints pertaining to their knees (66.66%), lower backs (64.61%), and necks (61.53%). The frequency of musculoskeletal problems was meaningfully greater between office workforces in high-risk workplaces. Significant lower back (80%) and neck (74.54%) discomfort was observed, which led researchers to conclude that AJA University of Medical Science office personnel frequently have musculoskeletal problems. Ergonomic therapies such as redesigning computer workstations and educating employees in ergonomics should be considered in order to prevent the related health risks. This is particularly relevant to high-risk employment areas..

11. M. J. H. McCarthy (17) evaluated the Vernon and Mior neck disability index's rationality and consistency in 2007 and compared it to the short form-36 health examination survey. The findings indicate that the NDI's test-retest reliability was high and equivalent to the best values observed with the SF36.and found that the NDI compares well with the SF36 and has strong validity and reliability. The NDI is shorter, easier to score, and quicker to complete..

METHODOLOGY:

The ethics committee granted its approval before the surgery could begin. All students on condition that written informed authorization after being told of the education's purpose. A questionnaire called the "Neck Disability Index" is used to gauge how uncomfortable pupils are. Pupils were informed about the questionnaire's phrasing and invited to express any queries they had about the question's unclear language. The goal of the schoolwork was elucidated to the students. They were requested to read the responses to every question on the questionnaires that were distributed. We pledge to protect the privacy of the information you supply and to use it solely for research. Participants enthusiastic to contribute in the study will be

Score (out of 50): 0 – 4 (0-8%) no disability

considered and those unwilling to participate will be excluded.

The Neck Disability Index survey was employed to gather information.

Neck Disability Index (NDI) score: The purpose of this questionnaire is to gather data on how a person's capacity to function in daily life is impacted by neck discomfort. Ten components make up the questionnaire, and each one is scored between 0 and 5. Therefore, a 50 overall score is possible. Higher disability is indicated by a higher score.

5-14 (10-28%) mild disability

15-24 (30-48%) moderate disability

25-34 (50-64%) severe disability

>35 (70-100%) complete disability

The results show that the NDI has strong test-retest reliability (r = 0.89, ICC = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.54 – 0.90, Cronbach's alpha = 0.80), with specificity and sensitivity of 59% and 52%, respectively. Using a sample of 209 people, the study sought to determine the incidence of neck discomfort among computer science department students.

RESULTS:

A thorough analysis of the data was conducted using Microsoft Excel 2016. A thorough examination of the data was conducted, with a particular focus on its analysis using appropriate statistical tools. We examined evocative statistics such as mean, standard deviation, frequency,and percentage.

Characteristics

Value

Age (mean ± SD)

20.92823 ± 1.032928

Table 1: Participant´s Demographic Data – shows mean value of Age

Figure 1: Percentage of Gender

 

Neck Disability Index

Number of Participants

Disability

Percentage

Total

Male

Female

No disability

0 – 8%

37

19

18

Mild disability

10 – 28%

103

57

46

M o d e r a t e disability

30 – 48%

57

25

32

Severe disability

50 – 64%

11

6

5

C o m p l e t e disability

70 – 100%

1

0

1

Total

209

107

102

Table 2: Total Percentage of Participants with Neck Disability

Figure 2: Percentage of Disability for Boys

Figure 3: Percentage of Neck Disability in Girls

Figure 4: Relationship between Gender and Disability

 

 

 

Mean

 

SD

 

95% Confidence Interval

 

r value

 

P value

 

 

 

 

M i n i m u m value

 

M i n i m u m value

 

 

 

NDI Score

 

11

 

7.33

 

 

0.7240

 

 

0.8303

 

 

0.7828

 

 

0.0001

 

Working hours

 

3.78

 

0.86

Table 3: Correlation between Working hours and NDI Score

 

Mean

SD

95% Confidence Interval

r value

P value

 

 

 

M i n i m u m value

M i n i m u m value

 

 

NDI Score

11

7.33

-0.02873

0.2397

0.1074

0.1215

Gender

1.48

0.50

Table 4: Correlation between Gender and NDI Score

The present study includes 209 students of the computer science department of Uka Tarsadia University. Out of which 107 were boys and 102 were girls. The stage of the contestants ranged among  19-25  years and  the mean age remained 20.92 ± 1.03 years. (Table 4.1)Out of 209 participants 103 were suffering with mild disability, 57 with reasonable incapacity, 37 with no disability, 11 with severe disability and 1 with complete disability. (Table 4.2) Out of 209 participants 49% were suffering with mild disability, 27% with moderate disability, 18% with no disability, 5% with severe disability and 1% with complete disability. (Figure 4.2)

The percentage of mild disability was higher in boys (53%) than the girls (45%). The percentage of severe disability was higher in boys (6%) as compared to girls (5%), but the percentage of moderate disability was higher in girls (31%) than the boys (23%). There was only one Percentage of complete disability in the girls. (Figure 4.3, 4.4, 4.5). 

Table 4.4 represents the correlation between working hours and neck disability score. Correlation coefficient r.= 0.7824, P value is <0.0001, shows extremely significant correlation.

Table 4.5 represents the correlation between gender and neck disability score. Correlation coefficient (r) = 0.1074, P value is 0.1215, shows non-significant correlation

DISCUSSION

The main objective of this cross-sectional study is to determine how common neck discomfort is among computer science department students. Most cases of neck discomfort are self-reported. In this investigation, the neck disability index was employed. Numerous classifications have been applied in epidemiological research to determine the prevalence of neck discomfort. The "gold standard" measuring instrument for determining the prevalence of neck discomfort in a given population does not exist.

Thus, the questionnaire is regarded as a crucial research instrument. There were 209 participants in the current study, with 51% of them being males and 49% being girls.

According to a research by Aysha Siddiqui Kalim Khan et al.(11) on neck pain among computer users, the incidence of neck discomfort is 28%, with females experiencing a higher prevalence than males (60%). among an investigation on the frequency of neckline discomfort among computer operators, Dr. S A Shah et al. (7) found that 47% of office workers who used cinematic exhibition components self-reported having non-specific neck discomfort. In a research on self-reported musculoskeletal pain among dentists, Koyyalamudi Prudhvi et al. (19) found that the prevalence is higher in men than in women.

Contrary to earlier research, we observed no variation in the prevalence rate of neck discomfort between boys and girls (82%). This finding may be the result of the different sample sizes for boys and girls (51% vs. 49%). Gender and NDI were correlated, and the results indicate a negative association. Additionally, a favorable association was found between working hours and NDI. It suggests that the NDI score would rise in tandem with an increase in working hours. Students in this research had a greater prevalence of minor disabilities. It may cause further cervical spine impairments and evolve from a modest to a severe handicap. Thus, it is important to recommend to students ergonomic treatments such computer workstation modification and ergonomic training. The prevalence of neck discomfort in our research was 82%, which is greater than in other studies. The fact that kids use the computers so frequently might be the cause. According to a research by Noack-Cooper et al. (18), students reported using computers for longer hours each day than professionals. College students are more likely than professionals to experience musculoskeletal complaints when using computers.

The frequency of neck discomfort was found to be greater among Uka Tarsadia University students studying computer technology. Additionally, it was discovered that using a computer during working hours was linked to neck discomfort. The study suggested that students who use computers should be taught and trained in ergonomically friendly locations, and they should take short breaks every few seconds.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

there is no conflict of interest

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

no acknowledgement

REFERENCES

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The Journal publishes original papers, current concepts, reviews and other articles relevant to physiotherapy with the aim to promote advances in research in the field of Physiotherapy. It also provides an opportunity for the expression of individual opinions on healthcare." with "The journal aims to promote research advances in the field of physiotherapy by publishing original papers, current concepts, reviews, and other relevant articles. In addition, it provides a platform for individuals to express their opinions on healthcare.

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