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Fallacies in physiotherapy practice are misconceptions or erroneous beliefs that physiotherapists may hold, impacting their clinical decision-making, patient care, and treatment outcomes. These fallacies can arise due to various factors, including outdated information, cognitive biases, limited experience, and the influence of cultural or societal beliefs. Identifying and addressing these fallacies is crucial to ensure that medical care is evidence-based, safe, and effective.

Types of fallacies and their remedies

Let's take a look at how some of these fallacies might manifest within the context of physiotherapy:

1. Diagnostic Certainty Fallacy:

In physiotherapy, practitioners might overly rely on specific assessments or tests to diagnose musculoskeletal conditions without considering the broader clinical picture. This can lead to misdiagnoses and inappropriate treatment plans. (1To combat the Diagnostic Certainty Fallacy in physiotherapy, practitioners must be willing to challenge their biases and not solely rely on isolated assessments or tests for diagnosing musculoskeletal conditions. Instead, they should consider the broader clinical context. For example, a physiotherapist should not solely rely on an magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan to diagnose a patient's lower back pain but should also consider the patient's medical history, lifestyle, and physical examination findings. By doing so, they can reduce the risk of misdiagnoses and create more appropriate treatment plans tailored to each patient's unique needs.

2. Confirmation Bias: Physiotherapists might focus on information that confirms their initial assessment, ignoring signs that suggest an alternative diagnosis or treatment approach. This can lead to tunnel vision and missed opportunities for more effective interventions.(2Addressing Confirmation Bias in physiotherapy requires practitioners should avoid fixating solely on information that confirms their initial assessment while disregarding signs that may indicate an alternative diagnosis or treatment approach. For instance, if a physiotherapist initially suspects a knee injury, they should remain open to other possibilities even if subsequent assessments point toward a different issue, such as hip dysfunction. This approach can prevent tunnel vision and ensure that more effective interventions are not missed.

3. Availability Heuristic:

Physiotherapists could base their treatment decisions on the most recent or memorable cases they've encountered rather than considering the full range of possible conditions and treatments. (3To combat the Availability Heuristic in physiotherapy, practitioners should avoid relying solely on their most recent or memorable cases when making treatment decisions. For example, if a physiotherapist had a recent success treating a patient with a specific shoulder injury, they should not automatically assume the same approach will work for every patient with shoulder pain. Instead, they should consider the full range of possible conditions and treatments to provide the most appropriate care for each individual.

4.Therapeutic Misconception:

Patients in physiotherapy might misunderstand the goals and expectations of their treatment, leading to unrealistic expectations about their recovery timeline or the outcomes they can achieve. (4-6To address the Therapeutic Misconception in physiotherapy, it's crucial for practitioners to ensure that patients have a clear understanding of the goals and expectations of their treatment. Patients may sometimes misinterpret the nature of their therapy, resulting in unrealistic expectations regarding their recovery timeline or achievable outcomes. For instance, a patient undergoing physiotherapy for a knee injury may believe they can return to high-impact sports within a few weeks, not realizing that the process may take longer and involve gradual progress. Therefore, physiotherapists must communicate treatment plans and expected outcomes clearly to help patients develop realistic expectations.

5. Anchoring Bias:

Physiotherapists might anchor their treatment plans to the initial complaints reported by the patient, potentially overlooking important information that arises during subsequent assessments. (7To mitigate the Anchoring Bias in physiotherapy, it's essential for practitioners to remain open to evolving information throughout the treatment process. They should avoid fixating on the initial complaints reported by the patient and be receptive to any new, pertinent information that emerges during subsequent assessments. For example, if a patient initially presents with knee pain but later mentions symptoms in their hip during follow-up appointments, the physiotherapist should not anchor their treatment solely to the initial knee complaint. Instead, they should consider the broader clinical picture to ensure comprehensive and effective care.

6.Overestimation of Treatment Benefits: Practitioners could overestimate the effectiveness of certain interventions, leading to a bias toward recommending those treatments even when evidence for their efficacy is limited. (8, 9To counteract the Overestimation of Treatment Benefits in physiotherapy, practitioners should maintain a balanced and evidence-based approach when recommending interventions. This involves avoiding the tendency to overestimate the effectiveness of specific treatments, especially when there is limited supporting evidence. For instance, if a physiotherapist comes across a new therapy for lower back pain that has received some positive anecdotal feedback but lacks robust scientific validation, they should exercise caution in promoting it as a primary treatment option. Instead, they should prioritize treatments with a more established evidence base, considering the potential risks and benefits of each intervention in a well-informed manner.

7.Halo Effect:

Physiotherapists might assume that a patient's physical fitness level directly correlates with their overall health, overlooking other factors that could contribute to their condition. (10, 11To address the Halo Effect, it's important for physiotherapists to avoid making assumptions about a patient's overall health based solely on one aspect, such as their physical fitness level. Instead, they should consider a comprehensive range of factors that could contribute to the patient's condition. For example, if a physiotherapist encounters a patient who appears physically fit and active but presents with persistent pain, they should resist the temptation to assume that the patient's overall health is excellent. Instead, they should conduct a thorough assessment, taking into account other potential factors like stress, diet, sleep patterns, and medical history to ensure a more holistic understanding of the patient's health and condition. This approach helps in making well-rounded and effective treatment decisions.

8. Minimal Intervention Fallacy:

Physiotherapists might underestimate the severity of a patient's musculoskeletal issue and opt for less intensive treatment, potentially delaying recovery or exacerbating the condition. (12To combat this Fallacy, physiotherapists should avoid underestimating the severity of a patient's musculoskeletal issue and instead opt for treatment that appropriately matches the condition's needs. For example, if a physiotherapist encounters a patient with persistent shoulder pain, assuming it's a minor issue and recommending minimal intervention like rest and simple exercises might delay recovery if, in fact, the patient has a more severe underlying condition like a rotator cuff tear. It's essential for the physiotherapist to conduct a thorough assessment and consider the full range of potential issues to ensure the appropriate level of intervention and prevent further complications.

9. Newer Is Better Fallacy:

Physiotherapists might assume that the latest gadgets or technologies are superior without thoroughly evaluating their effectiveness or appropriateness for a specific patient's needs. (13To address the Newer Is Better Fallacy, physiotherapists should refrain from assuming that the latest gadgets or technologies are always superior and, instead, conduct a careful evaluation of their effectiveness and suitability for each patient's unique needs. For instance, if a physiotherapist encounters a new cutting-edge device for treating knee injuries, they should resist the temptation to automatically incorporate it into all treatment plans. Instead, they should critically assess whether this technology provides tangible benefits over existing, proven methods for individual patients, considering factors like cost, accessibility, and patient preferences to make informed and patient-centered decisions.

10. Hasty Generalization:

Drawing broad conclusions about a patient's condition based on limited movement assessments or initial observations can lead to inaccurate treatment approaches. (14To counteract the Hasty Generalization fallacy, physiotherapists should avoid making sweeping conclusions about a patient's condition based solely on limited movement assessments or initial observations. For example, if a physiotherapist observes a patient struggling with a particular exercise during the first session, they should refrain from assuming that the patient's overall progress will be similarly challenging. Instead, they should conduct a comprehensive evaluation, considering the full range of factors that may affect the patient's condition and treatment needs to ensure more accurate and tailored therapeutic approaches.

11. Omission Bias:

Physiotherapists might avoid recommending more aggressive treatments, such as surgery or invasive procedures, due to concerns about potential risks or complications.(15-17To address Omission Bias, physiotherapists should refrain from avoiding potentially beneficial treatments, such as surgery or invasive procedures, solely out of concerns about potential risks or complications. For example, if a physiotherapist is working with a patient who has a severe musculoskeletal condition that could benefit from surgery, they should not omit discussing surgical options just because of fears about possible complications. Instead, they should present a comprehensive view of the available treatments, including potential risks and benefits, and involve the patient in a shared decision-making process to determine the most suitable course of action based on the patient's specific needs and preferences.

12. Defensive Medicine Fallacy:

In physiotherapy, practitioners might recommend unnecessary exercises or interventions to avoid potential patient dissatisfaction or claims of inadequate care. (18, 19)  To counter this Fallacy, physiotherapists should avoid recommending unnecessary exercises or interventions solely to prevent potential patient dissatisfaction or legal claims of inadequate care. For instance, if a physiotherapist believes that a patient's condition can be managed effectively with a minimal intervention plan, they should not succumb to defensive practices by overloading the treatment plan with excessive exercises or therapies. Instead, they should base their recommendations on the patient's actual needs and clinical assessment, ensuring that the provided care aligns with the best interests of the patient's health and recovery rather than merely trying to avoid perceived legal risks.

13. Authority Bias:

Relying solely on the recommendations of senior physiotherapists without critically evaluating the evidence behind their suggestions can hinder the integration of new, evidence-based practices.(20)To counteract this Bias, physiotherapists should refrain from unquestionably following the recommendations of senior physiotherapists and instead critically evaluate the evidence supporting their suggestions. For example, if a junior physiotherapist receives guidance from a senior colleague regarding a treatment approach, they should not blindly adopt it without considering the current scientific literature or patient-specific factors. Instead, they should assess the evidence and adapt their practices accordingly, ensuring that the integration of new, evidence-based techniques takes precedence over tradition or authority-driven decisions.

14. Personal Experience Fallacy:

Physiotherapists might base their treatment decisions on their own experiences or successes with certain techniques, overlooking alternative approaches that might be more appropriate for specific patients. (21To address this Fallacy, physiotherapists should avoid making treatment decisions solely based on their personal experiences or past successes with specific techniques. Instead, they should consider a broader range of approaches that may be more suitable for individual patients. For example, if a physiotherapist had success treating previous patients with a particular exercise regimen for lower back pain, they should not automatically apply the same approach to all new patients with similar symptoms. Each patient's condition and needs vary, so it's important for the physiotherapist to assess and tailor the treatment plan accordingly, considering a variety of evidence-based interventions beyond their personal experiences.



Physiotherapists must commit to continuous learning, critical thinking, and evidence-based practice to address these fallacies. This involves challenging biases, prioritizing patient well-being over personal beliefs, and integrating the best evidence into treatment decisions to provide tailored, high-quality care.


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2.   Nickerson RS. Confirmation Bias: A Ubiquitous Phenomenon in Many Guises. Review of General Psychology. 1998;2(2):175-220.

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4.  Henderson GE, Churchill LR, Davis AM, Easter MM, Grady C, Joffe S, et al. Clinical trials and medical care: defining the therapeutic misconception. PLoS medicine. 2007;4(11):e324.

5.  Heynemann S, Lipworth W, McLachlan S-A, Philip J, John T, Kerridge I. When research becomes practice: the concept of the therapeutic misconception and challenges to consent in clinical trials. Internal Medicine Journal. 2023;53(2):271-4.

6.  Lidz C, Appelbaum P. The Therapeutic Misconception: Problems and Solutions. Medical care. 2002;40:V55-63.

7.  Bouygues HL. Don’t Let Anchoring Bias Weigh Down Your Judgment 2022. Available from:

8.  Morgan DJ, Pineles L, Owczarzak J, Magder L, Scherer L, Brown JP, et al. Clinician Conceptualization of the Benefits of Treatments for Individual Patients. JAMA Network Open. 2021;4(7):e2119747-e.

9.   Shimura M. Reducing overestimation of the treatment effect by interim analysis when designing clinical trials. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics. 2019;44(2):243-8.

10.  Sherbino J, Norman G. On Rating Angels: The Halo Effect and Straight Line Scoring. Journal of graduate medical education. 2017;9(6):721-3.

11.  Brown EG, Anderson JE, Burgess D, Bold RJ. Examining the “Halo Effect” of Surgical Care Within Health Systems. JAMA Surgery. 2016;151(10):983-4.

12.   Luis J, Turabian J. The Concept of Minimalist Interventions in General Medicine: Minimum Means, Maximum Effect. 2019.

13. Rose H. Novelty fallacy: why new isn’t always better: NESS LABS; 2023. Available from:,seeking%20does%20correlate%20with%20benefits.

14.    Walton D. Rethinking the Fallacy of Hasty Generalization. Argumentation. 1999;13(2):161-82.

15.     Aberegg SK, Haponik EF, Terry PB. Omission bias and decision making in pulmonary and critical care medicine. Chest. 2005;128(3):1497-505.

16.    Zikmund-Fisher BJ, Sarr B, Fagerlin A, Ubel PA. A matter of perspective: choosing for others differs from choosing for yourself in making treatment decisions. Journal of general internal medicine. 2006;21(6):618-22.

17.  Sherman GD, Vallen B, Finkelstein SR, Connell PM, Boland WA, Feemster K. When taking action means accepting responsibility: Omission bias predicts parents' reluctance to vaccinate due to greater anticipated culpability for negative side effects. Journal of Consumer Affairs. 2021;55(4):1660-81.

18.   Dudeja S, Dhirar N. Defensive medicine: Sword of Damocles. The National medical journal of India. 2018;31(6):364-5.

19.   Sekhar MS, Vyas N. Defensive medicine: a bane to healthcare. Ann Med Health Sci Res. 2013;3(2):295-6.

20.    Nikolopoulou K. Appeal to Authority Fallacy | Definition & Examples: Scribbr - Scriptie laten nakijken; 2023. Available from:

21.   Finmasters. Anecdotal Fallacy: Why Is The Use of Anecdotal Evidence Fallacious? 2023. Available from:

The Journal publishes original papers, current concepts, reviews and other articles relevant to physiotherapy with the aim to promote advances in research in the field of Physiotherapy. It also provides an opportunity for the expression of individual opinions on healthcare." with "The journal aims to promote research advances in the field of physiotherapy by publishing original papers, current concepts, reviews, and other relevant articles. In addition, it provides a platform for individuals to express their opinions on healthcare.

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